Android——消息分发机制

Android——消息分发机制

Android小彩虹2021-07-18 8:14:40190A+A-

什么是 Handler 机制 ? Handler 机制是 Android 中用于线程间通信的一套通信机制。

为什么是 Handler ?Handler 机制为什么被那么多次的提及 ? 从Android4.0开始,Android 中网络请求强制不允许在主线程中操作,而更新UI的操作则不允许在子线程中执行。当在子线程中执行网络请求,拿到服务器返回的数据之后,要更新UI。由于系统的要求,势必会产生一种矛盾:数据在子线程,更新UI要在主线程。此时我们必须要把数据返回到主线程中才行,Handler机制应运而生。

Android 中针对耗时的操作,放在主线程操作,轻者会造成 UI 卡顿,重则会直接无响应,造成 Force Close。同时在 Android 3.0 以后,禁止在主线程进行网络请求。

针对耗时或者网络操作,那就不能在主线程进行直接操作了,需要放在子线程或者是工作线程中进行操作,操作完成以后,再更新主线程即 UI 线程。这里就涉及到一个问题了,在子线程执行完成以后,怎么能更新到主线程即 UI 线程呢,针对以上问题,就需要用到 Android 的消息机制了,即: Handler, Message, MessageQueue, Looper 全家桶

Handler机制中最重要的四个对象

  • Handler:负责发送消息及处理消息
  • Looper:复制不断的从消息队列中取出消息,并且给发送本条消息的Handler
  • MessageQueue:负责存储消息
  • Message:消息本身,负责携带数据

Handler的构造方法:

public Handler() {
        this(null, false);
    }

public Handler(@Nullable Callback callback, boolean async) {
        if (FIND_POTENTIAL_LEAKS) {
            final Class<? extends Handler> klass = getClass();
            if ((klass.isAnonymousClass() || klass.isMemberClass() || klass.isLocalClass()) &&
                    (klass.getModifiers() & Modifier.STATIC) == 0) {
                Log.w(TAG, "The following Handler class should be static or leaks might occur: " +
                    klass.getCanonicalName());
            }
        }

        mLooper = Looper.myLooper();
        if (mLooper == null) {
            throw new RuntimeException(
                "Can't create handler inside thread " + Thread.currentThread()
                        + " that has not called Looper.prepare()");
        }
        mQueue = mLooper.mQueue;
        mCallback = callback;
        mAsynchronous = async;
    }

// Looper.myLooper()
public static @Nullable Looper myLooper() {
        return sThreadLocal.get();
    }

// Handler.mQueue
final MessageQueue mQueue;
// Looper.mQueue
mQueue = new MessageQueue(quitAllowed);

Looper :

/**
  * Looper.prepare()
  */
public static void prepare() {
        prepare(true);
    }

private static void prepare(boolean quitAllowed) {
        if (sThreadLocal.get() != null) {
            throw new RuntimeException("Only one Looper may be created per thread");
        }
        sThreadLocal.set(new Looper(quitAllowed));
    }

    private Looper(boolean quitAllowed) {
        mQueue = new MessageQueue(quitAllowed);
        mThread = Thread.currentThread();
    }

// Looper.sThreadLocal
static final ThreadLocal<Looper> sThreadLocal = new ThreadLocal<Looper>();

/**
  * ThreadLocal<T>.get()
  */
public T get() {
        Thread t = Thread.currentThread();
        ThreadLocalMap map = getMap(t);
        if (map != null) {
            ThreadLocalMap.Entry e = map.getEntry(this);
            if (e != null) {
                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
                T result = (T)e.value;
                return result;
            }
        }
        return setInitialValue();
    }

Handler的使用:

/**
  * Handler.sendMessage(Message msg)
  */
public final boolean sendMessage(@NonNull Message msg) {
        return sendMessageDelayed(msg, 0);
    }

public final boolean sendMessageDelayed(@NonNull Message msg, long delayMillis) {
        if (delayMillis < 0) {
            delayMillis = 0;
        }
        return sendMessageAtTime(msg, SystemClock.uptimeMillis() + delayMillis);
    }

public boolean sendMessageAtTime(@NonNull Message msg, long uptimeMillis) {
        MessageQueue queue = mQueue;
        if (queue == null) {
            RuntimeException e = new RuntimeException(
                    this + " sendMessageAtTime() called with no mQueue");
            Log.w("Looper", e.getMessage(), e);
            return false;
        }
        return enqueueMessage(queue, msg, uptimeMillis);
    }

private boolean enqueueMessage(@NonNull MessageQueue queue, @NonNull Message msg,
            long uptimeMillis) {
        // 注意这里
        msg.target = this;
        msg.workSourceUid = ThreadLocalWorkSource.getUid();

        if (mAsynchronous) {
            msg.setAsynchronous(true);
        }
        // 这里调用了 MessageQueue.enqueueMessage()
        return queue.enqueueMessage(msg, uptimeMillis);
    }

MessageQueue:

/**
  * MessageQueue.enqueueMessage(Message msg, long when)
  */
boolean enqueueMessage(Message msg, long when) {
        if (msg.target == null) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Message must have a target.");
        }
        if (msg.isInUse()) {
            throw new IllegalStateException(msg + " This message is already in use.");
        }

        synchronized (this) {
            if (mQuitting) {
                IllegalStateException e = new IllegalStateException(
                        msg.target + " sending message to a Handler on a dead thread");
                Log.w(TAG, e.getMessage(), e);
                msg.recycle();
                return false;
            }

            msg.markInUse();
            msg.when = when;
            Message p = mMessages;
            boolean needWake;
            if (p == null || when == 0 || when < p.when) {
                // New head, wake up the event queue if blocked.
                msg.next = p;
                mMessages = msg;
                needWake = mBlocked;
            } else {
                // Inserted within the middle of the queue.  Usually we don't have to wake
                // up the event queue unless there is a barrier at the head of the queue
                // and the message is the earliest asynchronous message in the queue.
                needWake = mBlocked && p.target == null && msg.isAsynchronous();
                Message prev;
                for (;;) {
                    prev = p;
                    p = p.next;
                    if (p == null || when < p.when) {
                        break;
                    }
                    if (needWake && p.isAsynchronous()) {
                        needWake = false;
                    }
                }
                msg.next = p; // invariant: p == prev.next
                prev.next = msg;
            }

            // We can assume mPtr != 0 because mQuitting is false.
            if (needWake) {
                nativeWake(mPtr);
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

Looper.loop()

/**
  * Looper.loop()
  */
public static void loop() {
        final Looper me = myLooper();
        if (me == null) {
            throw new RuntimeException("No Looper; Looper.prepare() wasn't called on this thread.");
        }
        final MessageQueue queue = me.mQueue;

        // Make sure the identity of this thread is that of the local process,
        // and keep track of what that identity token actually is.
        Binder.clearCallingIdentity();
        final long ident = Binder.clearCallingIdentity();

        // Allow overriding a threshold with a system prop. e.g.
        // adb shell 'setprop log.looper.1000.main.slow 1 && stop && start'
        final int thresholdOverride =
                SystemProperties.getInt("log.looper."
                        + Process.myUid() + "."
                        + Thread.currentThread().getName()
                        + ".slow", 0);

        boolean slowDeliveryDetected = false;

        // 注意这里
        for (;;) {
            Message msg = queue.next(); // might block
            if (msg == null) {
                // No message indicates that the message queue is quitting.
                return;
            }

            // This must be in a local variable, in case a UI event sets the logger
            final Printer logging = me.mLogging;
            if (logging != null) {
                logging.println(">>>>> Dispatching to " + msg.target + " " +
                        msg.callback + ": " + msg.what);
            }
            // Make sure the observer won't change while processing a transaction.
            final Observer observer = sObserver;

            final long traceTag = me.mTraceTag;
            long slowDispatchThresholdMs = me.mSlowDispatchThresholdMs;
            long slowDeliveryThresholdMs = me.mSlowDeliveryThresholdMs;
            if (thresholdOverride > 0) {
                slowDispatchThresholdMs = thresholdOverride;
                slowDeliveryThresholdMs = thresholdOverride;
            }
            final boolean logSlowDelivery = (slowDeliveryThresholdMs > 0) && (msg.when > 0);
            final boolean logSlowDispatch = (slowDispatchThresholdMs > 0);

            final boolean needStartTime = logSlowDelivery || logSlowDispatch;
            final boolean needEndTime = logSlowDispatch;

            if (traceTag != 0 && Trace.isTagEnabled(traceTag)) {
                Trace.traceBegin(traceTag, msg.target.getTraceName(msg));
            }

            final long dispatchStart = needStartTime ? SystemClock.uptimeMillis() : 0;
            final long dispatchEnd;
            Object token = null;
            if (observer != null) {
                token = observer.messageDispatchStarting();
            }
            long origWorkSource = ThreadLocalWorkSource.setUid(msg.workSourceUid);
            try {
                msg.target.dispatchMessage(msg);
                if (observer != null) {
                    observer.messageDispatched(token, msg);
                }
                dispatchEnd = needEndTime ? SystemClock.uptimeMillis() : 0;
            } catch (Exception exception) {
                if (observer != null) {
                    observer.dispatchingThrewException(token, msg, exception);
                }
                throw exception;
            } finally {
                ThreadLocalWorkSource.restore(origWorkSource);
                if (traceTag != 0) {
                    Trace.traceEnd(traceTag);
                }
            }
            if (logSlowDelivery) {
                if (slowDeliveryDetected) {
                    if ((dispatchStart - msg.when) <= 10) {
                        Slog.w(TAG, "Drained");
                        slowDeliveryDetected = false;
                    }
                } else {
                    if (showSlowLog(slowDeliveryThresholdMs, msg.when, dispatchStart, "delivery",
                            msg)) {
                        // Once we write a slow delivery log, suppress until the queue drains.
                        slowDeliveryDetected = true;
                    }
                }
            }
            if (logSlowDispatch) {
                showSlowLog(slowDispatchThresholdMs, dispatchStart, dispatchEnd, "dispatch", msg);
            }

            if (logging != null) {
                logging.println("<<<<< Finished to " + msg.target + " " + msg.callback);
            }

            // Make sure that during the course of dispatching the
            // identity of the thread wasn't corrupted.
            final long newIdent = Binder.clearCallingIdentity();
            if (ident != newIdent) {
                Log.wtf(TAG, "Thread identity changed from 0x"
                        + Long.toHexString(ident) + " to 0x"
                        + Long.toHexString(newIdent) + " while dispatching to "
                        + msg.target.getClass().getName() + " "
                        + msg.callback + " what=" + msg.what);
            }

            msg.recycleUnchecked();
        }
    }

/**
  * MessageQueue.next()
  */
Message next() {
        // Return here if the message loop has already quit and been disposed.
        // This can happen if the application tries to restart a looper after quit
        // which is not supported.
        final long ptr = mPtr;
        if (ptr == 0) {
            return null;
        }

        int pendingIdleHandlerCount = -1; // -1 only during first iteration
        int nextPollTimeoutMillis = 0;
        for (;;) {
            if (nextPollTimeoutMillis != 0) {
                Binder.flushPendingCommands();
            }

            nativePollOnce(ptr, nextPollTimeoutMillis);

            synchronized (this) {
                // Try to retrieve the next message.  Return if found.
                final long now = SystemClock.uptimeMillis();
                Message prevMsg = null;
                Message msg = mMessages;
                if (msg != null && msg.target == null) {
                    // Stalled by a barrier.  Find the next asynchronous message in the queue.
                    do {
                        prevMsg = msg;
                        msg = msg.next;
                    } while (msg != null && !msg.isAsynchronous());
                }
                if (msg != null) {
                    if (now < msg.when) {
                        // Next message is not ready.  Set a timeout to wake up when it is ready.
                        nextPollTimeoutMillis = (int) Math.min(msg.when - now, Integer.MAX_VALUE);
                    } else {
                        // Got a message.
                        mBlocked = false;
                        if (prevMsg != null) {
                            prevMsg.next = msg.next;
                        } else {
                            mMessages = msg.next;
                        }
                        msg.next = null;
                        if (DEBUG) Log.v(TAG, "Returning message: " + msg);
                        msg.markInUse();
                        return msg;
                    }
                } else {
                    // No more messages.
                    nextPollTimeoutMillis = -1;
                }

                // Process the quit message now that all pending messages have been handled.
                if (mQuitting) {
                    dispose();
                    return null;
                }

                // If first time idle, then get the number of idlers to run.
                // Idle handles only run if the queue is empty or if the first message
                // in the queue (possibly a barrier) is due to be handled in the future.
                if (pendingIdleHandlerCount < 0
                        && (mMessages == null || now < mMessages.when)) {
                    pendingIdleHandlerCount = mIdleHandlers.size();
                }
                if (pendingIdleHandlerCount <= 0) {
                    // No idle handlers to run.  Loop and wait some more.
                    mBlocked = true;
                    continue;
                }

                if (mPendingIdleHandlers == null) {
                    mPendingIdleHandlers = new IdleHandler[Math.max(pendingIdleHandlerCount, 4)];
                }
                mPendingIdleHandlers = mIdleHandlers.toArray(mPendingIdleHandlers);
            }

            // Run the idle handlers.
            // We only ever reach this code block during the first iteration.
            for (int i = 0; i < pendingIdleHandlerCount; i++) {
                final IdleHandler idler = mPendingIdleHandlers[i];
                mPendingIdleHandlers[i] = null; // release the reference to the handler

                boolean keep = false;
                try {
                    keep = idler.queueIdle();
                } catch (Throwable t) {
                    Log.wtf(TAG, "IdleHandler threw exception", t);
                }

                if (!keep) {
                    synchronized (this) {
                        mIdleHandlers.remove(idler);
                    }
                }
            }

            // Reset the idle handler count to 0 so we do not run them again.
            pendingIdleHandlerCount = 0;

            // While calling an idle handler, a new message could have been delivered
            // so go back and look again for a pending message without waiting.
            nextPollTimeoutMillis = 0;
        }
    }

Handler.dispatchMessage()


    public void dispatchMessage(@NonNull Message msg) {
        if (msg.callback != null) {
            handleCallback(msg);
        } else {
            if (mCallback != null) {
                if (mCallback.handleMessage(msg)) {
                    return;
                }
            }
            handleMessage(msg);
        }
    }

####常见问题 #####内存泄漏 handler导致activity内存泄露的原因: handler发送的消息在当前handler的消息队列中,如果此时activity finish掉了,那么消息队列的消息依旧会由handler进行处理,若此时handler声明为内部类(非静态内部类),我们知道内部类天然持有外部类的实例引用,这样在GC垃圾回收机制进行回收时发现这个Activity居然还有其他引用存在,因而就不会去回收这个Activity,进而导致activity泄露。

假如在子线程执行了耗时操作,这时用户操作进入了其他的 acitvity, 那么 MainActivity 就会被内存回收的,但是这个时候发现 Handler 还在引用着 MainActivity,内存无法及时回收,造成内存泄漏。

Handler 防止内存泄漏常见方法:

  • Handler 继承类,用 static 进行修饰,成为静态内部类
  • Handler 中对 Activity 进行弱引用
  • Activity 执行 onDestroy() 方法时,对 Handler 做执行清空操作。

####为什么可以跨线程进行 UI 更新 ? 为什么通过 Handler 可以把子线程的结果通知或者携带给 UI 线程 ? 这里的 Handler 指的是主线程的 Handler ,同时与 Handler 配套的 Looper , MessageQueue 是在 UI 线程初始化的,所以在子线程中调用 Handler 发送消息可以更新 UI 线程。 Looper 在 UI 线程源码, 在 ActivityThread 类:

/**
  * ActivityThread.main()
  */
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "ActivityThreadMain");

        // Install selective syscall interception
        AndroidOs.install();

        // CloseGuard defaults to true and can be quite spammy.  We
        // disable it here, but selectively enable it later (via
        // StrictMode) on debug builds, but using DropBox, not logs.
        CloseGuard.setEnabled(false);

        Environment.initForCurrentUser();

        // Make sure TrustedCertificateStore looks in the right place for CA certificates
        final File configDir = Environment.getUserConfigDirectory(UserHandle.myUserId());
        TrustedCertificateStore.setDefaultUserDirectory(configDir);

        Process.setArgV0("<pre-initialized>");

        // 这里
        Looper.prepareMainLooper();

        // Find the value for {@link #PROC_START_SEQ_IDENT} if provided on the command line.
        // It will be in the format "seq=114"
        long startSeq = 0;
        if (args != null) {
            for (int i = args.length - 1; i >= 0; --i) {
                if (args[i] != null && args[i].startsWith(PROC_START_SEQ_IDENT)) {
                    startSeq = Long.parseLong(
                            args[i].substring(PROC_START_SEQ_IDENT.length()));
                }
            }
        }
        ActivityThread thread = new ActivityThread();
        thread.attach(false, startSeq);

        if (sMainThreadHandler == null) {
            sMainThreadHandler = thread.getHandler();
        }

        if (false) {
            Looper.myLooper().setMessageLogging(new
                    LogPrinter(Log.DEBUG, "ActivityThread"));
        }

        // End of event ActivityThreadMain.
        Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
        // 这里
        Looper.loop();

        throw new RuntimeException("Main thread loop unexpectedly exited");
    }

/**
  * Looper.prepareMainLooper()
  */
    public static void prepareMainLooper() {
        prepare(false);
        synchronized (Looper.class) {
            if (sMainLooper != null) {
                throw new IllegalStateException("The main Looper has already been prepared.");
            }
            sMainLooper = myLooper();
        }
    }

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