Android进阶(十)资源和Service的插件化

Android进阶(十)资源和Service的插件化

Android小彩虹2021-08-26 2:17:01130A+A-

一、系统资源加载

1、资源类别

  • res目录下存放的资源文件。编译时会在R文件中生成资源文件的十六进制值。res目录下资源通过Context.getResource方法获取到Resource对象,然后通过getXXX获取资源。
  • assets目录下存放的原始文件,编译时不会被编译。通过AssetManager的open方法获取目录下文件资源,AssetManager来源于Resources类的getAssets方法

2、Resources

(1)AssetManager

  • AssetManage有一个addAssetPath方法,将apk路径传入,Resources就能访问当前apk的所有资源。可以通过反射的方式将插件apk路径传入addAssetPath方法。
  • AssetManager内部有一个NDK方法,用来访问文件。apk打包时会生成一个resources.arsc文件,是一个Hash表,存放着十六进制和资源的对应关系

二、VirtualApk插件资源加载

资源插件化实现方式:

  • 合并资源:将插件的资源合并到宿主的Resources中,可以访问宿主的资源。可能存在插件和宿主的资源id重复的情况。
    解决方式:
    (1)修改Android打包流程中使用到的aapt命令,为插件的资源id指定前缀,避免与宿主资源id冲突。
    (2)在Android打包生成resources.arsc文件之后,对这个resources.arsc文件进行修改。
  • 单独加载插件资源:每个插件都会构造单独的Resources去加载插件资源,不能访问宿主资源

1、Resources创建

#LoadedPlugin
public LoadedPlugin(PluginManager pluginManager, Context context, File apk) throws Exception {
    ......
    this.mResources = createResources(context, getPackageName(), apk);
    ......
}
protected Resources createResources(Context context, String packageName, File apk) throws Exception {
    if (Constants.COMBINE_RESOURCES) {
        //插件资源合并到宿主中,插件可访问宿主资源
        return ResourcesManager.createResources(context, packageName, apk);
    } else {
        //插件创建独立的Resources,不与宿主关联
        Resources hostResources = context.getResources();
        AssetManager assetManager = createAssetManager(context, apk);
        return new Resources(assetManager, hostResources.getDisplayMetrics(), hostResources.getConfiguration());
    }
}

2、插件资源独立

主要通过反射创建新的AssetManager对象,通过addAssetPath加载插件资源。适用于资源独立的情况,无法调用宿主资源

protected AssetManager createAssetManager(Context context, File apk) throws Exception {
    //通过反射创建新的AssetManager对象,通过addAssetPath加载插件资源
    AssetManager am = AssetManager.class.newInstance();
    Reflector.with(am).method("addAssetPath", String.class).call(apk.getAbsolutePath());
    return am;
}

3、插件资源合并

先获取到宿主资源的AssetManager,再通过反射调用AssetManager的addAssetPath添加插件资源,返回新的Resources

#ResourcesManager
public static synchronized Resources createResources(Context hostContext, String packageName, File apk) throws Exception {
    //根据版本创建Resources对象
    if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= Build.VERSION_CODES.N) {
        //(1)
        return createResourcesForN(hostContext, packageName, apk);
    }
    //(2)
    Resources resources = ResourcesManager.createResourcesSimple(hostContext, apk.getAbsolutePath());
    ResourcesManager.hookResources(hostContext, resources);
    return resources;
}
//创建Resource对象
private static Resources createResourcesSimple(Context hostContext, String apk) throws Exception {
    //宿主Resources对象
    Resources hostResources = hostContext.getResources();
    Resources newResources = null;
    AssetManager assetManager;
    Reflector reflector = Reflector.on(AssetManager.class).method("addAssetPath", String.class);
    if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT < Build.VERSION_CODES.LOLLIPOP) {
        //通过反射创建AssetManager
        assetManager = AssetManager.class.newInstance();
        reflector.bind(assetManager);
        final int cookie1 = reflector.call(hostContext.getApplicationInfo().sourceDir);;
        if (cookie1 == 0) {
            throw new RuntimeException("createResources failed, can't addAssetPath for " + hostContext.getApplicationInfo().sourceDir);
        }
    } else {
        //获取到宿主的AssetManager
        assetManager = hostResources.getAssets();
        reflector.bind(assetManager);
    }
    final int cookie2 = reflector.call(apk);
    if (cookie2 == 0) {
        throw new RuntimeException("createResources failed, can't addAssetPath for " + apk);
    }
    List<LoadedPlugin> pluginList = PluginManager.getInstance(hostContext).getAllLoadedPlugins();
    for (LoadedPlugin plugin : pluginList) {
        final int cookie3 = reflector.call(plugin.getLocation());
        if (cookie3 == 0) {
            throw new RuntimeException("createResources failed, can't addAssetPath for " + plugin.getLocation());
        }
    }
    //通过不同的手机品牌创建Resources对象
    if (isMiUi(hostResources)) {
        newResources = MiUiResourcesCompat.createResources(hostResources, assetManager);
    } else if (isVivo(hostResources)) {
        newResources = VivoResourcesCompat.createResources(hostContext, hostResources, assetManager);
    } else if (isNubia(hostResources)) {
        newResources = NubiaResourcesCompat.createResources(hostResources, assetManager);
    } else if (isNotRawResources(hostResources)) {
        newResources = AdaptationResourcesCompat.createResources(hostResources, assetManager);
    } else {
        // is raw android resources
        newResources = new Resources(assetManager, hostResources.getDisplayMetrics(), hostResources.getConfiguration());
    }
    // lastly, sync all LoadedPlugin to newResources
    for (LoadedPlugin plugin : pluginList) {
        plugin.updateResources(newResources);
    }
    
    return newResources;
}

Hook住了ContextImpl的mResources和LoadedApk的mResources

public static void hookResources(Context base, Resources resources) {
    if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= Build.VERSION_CODES.N) {
        return;
    }
    try {
        Reflector reflector = Reflector.with(base);
        //hook mResources
        reflector.field("mResources").set(resources);
        Object loadedApk = reflector.field("mPackageInfo").get();
        //hook mResources
        Reflector.with(loadedApk).field("mResources").set(resources);

        Object activityThread = ActivityThread.currentActivityThread();
        Object resManager;
        if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= Build.VERSION_CODES.KITKAT) {
            resManager = android.app.ResourcesManager.getInstance();
        } else {
            resManager = Reflector.with(activityThread).field("mResourcesManager").get();
        }
        Map<Object, WeakReference<Resources>> map = Reflector.with(resManager).field("mActiveResources").get();
        Object key = map.keySet().iterator().next();
        map.put(key, new WeakReference<>(resources));
    } catch (Exception e) {
        Log.w(TAG, e);
    }
}

4、Activity启动资源处理

#VAInstrumentation
@Override
public Activity newActivity(ClassLoader cl, String className, Intent intent) throws InstantiationException, IllegalAccessException, ClassNotFoundException {
    try {
        cl.loadClass(className);
        Log.i(TAG, String.format("newActivity[%s]", className));
        
    } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
        ......

        // 通过反射将Resources赋值给Activity的mResources
        Reflector.QuietReflector.with(activity).field("mResources").set(plugin.getResources());
        return newActivity(activity);
    }

    return newActivity(mBase.newActivity(cl, className, intent));
}

三、so的插件化

so的插件化,有两种方案:基于System.Load和基于System.LoadLibrary。

1、VirtualApk的实现

#LoadedPlugin
protected ClassLoader createClassLoader(Context context, File apk, File libsDir, ClassLoader parent) throws Exception {
    File dexOutputDir = getDir(context, Constants.OPTIMIZE_DIR);
    String dexOutputPath = dexOutputDir.getAbsolutePath();
    DexClassLoader loader = new DexClassLoader(apk.getAbsolutePath(), dexOutputPath, libsDir.getAbsolutePath(), parent);

    if (Constants.COMBINE_CLASSLOADER) {
        DexUtil.insertDex(loader, parent, libsDir);
    }
    return loader;
}

创建了一个DexClassLoader,解析出每个插件apk中的so文件,解压到某个位置,把这些路径用逗号连接起来成为一个字符串,放到DexClassLoader的构造函数的第3个参数中。这样插件中的so,就和宿主App中jniLib目录下的so一样,通过System.loadLibrary方法来加载。

#DexUtil
public static void insertDex(DexClassLoader dexClassLoader, ClassLoader baseClassLoader, File nativeLibsDir) throws Exception {
    Object baseDexElements = getDexElements(getPathList(baseClassLoader));
    Object newDexElements = getDexElements(getPathList(dexClassLoader));
    //将宿主和插件的DexElements合并得到allDexElements
    Object allDexElements = combineArray(baseDexElements, newDexElements);
    Object pathList = getPathList(baseClassLoader);
    //通过反射将dexElements替换为allDexElements
    Reflector.with(pathList).field("dexElements").set(allDexElements);
    
    insertNativeLibrary(dexClassLoader, baseClassLoader, nativeLibsDir);
}

so插件化核心代码

private static synchronized void insertNativeLibrary(DexClassLoader dexClassLoader, ClassLoader baseClassLoader, File nativeLibsDir) throws Exception {
    if (sHasInsertedNativeLibrary) {
        return;
    }
    sHasInsertedNativeLibrary = true;

    Context context = ActivityThread.currentApplication();
    //获取宿主的PathList
    Object basePathList = getPathList(baseClassLoader);
    if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT > Build.VERSION_CODES.LOLLIPOP_MR1) {
        Reflector reflector = Reflector.with(basePathList);
   
        List<File> nativeLibraryDirectories = reflector.field("nativeLibraryDirectories").get();
        nativeLibraryDirectories.add(nativeLibsDir);
        //获取到宿主的so集合
        Object baseNativeLibraryPathElements = reflector.field("nativeLibraryPathElements").get();
        final int baseArrayLength = Array.getLength(baseNativeLibraryPathElements);

        Object newPathList = getPathList(dexClassLoader);
        //获取到插件的so集合
        Object newNativeLibraryPathElements = reflector.get(newPathList);
        Class<?> elementClass = newNativeLibraryPathElements.getClass().getComponentType();
        Object allNativeLibraryPathElements = Array.newInstance(elementClass, baseArrayLength + 1);
        //将原来宿主的so集合拷贝到新集合中
        System.arraycopy(baseNativeLibraryPathElements, 0, allNativeLibraryPathElements, 0, baseArrayLength);

        Field soPathField;
        if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= 26) {
            soPathField = elementClass.getDeclaredField("path");
        } else {
            soPathField = elementClass.getDeclaredField("dir");
        }
        soPathField.setAccessible(true);
        //将插件的so集合拷贝到新集合中
        final int newArrayLength = Array.getLength(newNativeLibraryPathElements);
        for (int i = 0; i < newArrayLength; i++) {
            Object element = Array.get(newNativeLibraryPathElements, i);
            String dir = ((File)soPathField.get(element)).getAbsolutePath();
            if (dir.contains(Constants.NATIVE_DIR)) {
                Array.set(allNativeLibraryPathElements, baseArrayLength, element);
                break;
            }
        }
        //将宿主和插件so的合集替换上去
        reflector.set(allNativeLibraryPathElements);
    } else {
        Reflector reflector = Reflector.with(basePathList).field("nativeLibraryDirectories");
        File[] nativeLibraryDirectories = reflector.get();
        final int N = nativeLibraryDirectories.length;
        File[] newNativeLibraryDirectories = new File[N + 1];
        System.arraycopy(nativeLibraryDirectories, 0, newNativeLibraryDirectories, 0, N);
        newNativeLibraryDirectories[N] = nativeLibsDir;
        reflector.set(newNativeLibraryDirectories);
    }
}

获取宿主so集合,获取插件so集合,二者合并后通过反射替换原so集合,插件so文件就能正常被加载了

四、VirtualApk的Service插件化

1、Service启动分析

插件化分析:

  • Service启动跟Instrumentation没关系,不能通过Hook Instrumentation来处理
  • 在Standard模式下多次启动占位Activity可创建多个Activity,但是多次启动占位Service并不会创建多个Service实例
  • 通过代理分发实现:启动一个代理Service统一管理,拦截所有Service方法,修改为startService到代理Service,在代理Service的onStartCommond统一管理,创建/停止目标service。

2、Hook IActivityManager

VirtualApk初始化时通过ActivityManagerProxy Hook了IActivityManager。启动服务时,通过ActivityManagerProxy拦截到了startService的操作

public class ActivityManagerProxy implements InvocationHandler {

    protected Object startService(Object proxy, Method method, Object[] args) throws Throwable {
        IApplicationThread appThread = (IApplicationThread) args[0];
        //跳转的intent
        Intent target = (Intent) args[1];
        //检查Service信息
        ResolveInfo resolveInfo = this.mPluginManager.resolveService(target, 0);
        if (null == resolveInfo || null == resolveInfo.serviceInfo) {
            // is host service
            return method.invoke(this.mActivityManager, args);
        }

        return startDelegateServiceForTarget(target, resolveInfo.serviceInfo, null, RemoteService.EXTRA_COMMAND_START_SERVICE);
    }

	protected ComponentName startDelegateServiceForTarget(Intent target, ServiceInfo serviceInfo, Bundle extras, int command) {
        Intent wrapperIntent = wrapperTargetIntent(target, serviceInfo, extras, command);
        return mPluginManager.getHostContext().startService(wrapperIntent);
    }

    protected Intent wrapperTargetIntent(Intent target, ServiceInfo serviceInfo, Bundle extras, int command) {
        // 将目标Service的相关信息存储起来
        target.setComponent(new ComponentName(serviceInfo.packageName, serviceInfo.name));
        String pluginLocation = mPluginManager.getLoadedPlugin(target.getComponent()).getLocation();

        // 根据processName判断是否为远程服务
        boolean local = PluginUtil.isLocalService(serviceInfo);
        // 判断交给LocalService还是RemoteService进行处理
        Class<? extends Service> delegate = local ? LocalService.class : RemoteService.class;
        // 参数传递
        Intent intent = new Intent();
        intent.setClass(mPluginManager.getHostContext(), delegate);
        intent.putExtra(RemoteService.EXTRA_TARGET, target);
        intent.putExtra(RemoteService.EXTRA_COMMAND, command);
        intent.putExtra(RemoteService.EXTRA_PLUGIN_LOCATION, pluginLocation);
        if (extras != null) {
            intent.putExtras(extras);
        }
        return intent;
    }
}

3、LocalService

public class LocalService extends Service {

    @Override
    public int onStartCommand(Intent intent, int flags, int startId) {
       	......
        switch (command) {
            case EXTRA_COMMAND_START_SERVICE: {
            	//获取ActivityThread
                ActivityThread mainThread = ActivityThread.currentActivityThread();
                IApplicationThread appThread = mainThread.getApplicationThread();
                Service service;

                if (this.mPluginManager.getComponentsHandler().isServiceAvailable(component)) {
                	//获取Service
                    service = this.mPluginManager.getComponentsHandler().getService(component);
                } else {
                    try {
                    	//通过DexClassLoader加载Service
                        service = (Service) plugin.getClassLoader().loadClass(component.getClassName()).newInstance();

                        Application app = plugin.getApplication();
                        IBinder token = appThread.asBinder();
                        Method attach = service.getClass().getMethod("attach", Context.class, ActivityThread.class, String.class, IBinder.class, Application.class, Object.class);
                        IActivityManager am = mPluginManager.getActivityManager();
                       	//通过attach方法绑定Context 		
                        attach.invoke(service, plugin.getPluginContext(), mainThread, component.getClassName(), token, app, am);
                        //调用Service的onCreate方法
                        service.onCreate();
                        this.mPluginManager.getComponentsHandler().rememberService(component, service);
                    } catch (Throwable t) {
                        return START_STICKY;
                    }
                }
                //调用service的onStartCommand方法
                service.onStartCommand(target, 0, this.mPluginManager.getComponentsHandler().getServiceCounter(service).getAndIncrement());
                break;
            }
            ......
        }
    }
}

4、RemoteService

public class RemoteService extends LocalService {
    
    private static final String TAG = Constants.TAG_PREFIX + "RemoteService";

    @Override
    public IBinder onBind(Intent intent) {
        return null;
    }

    @Override
    public int onStartCommand(Intent intent, int flags, int startId) {
        if (intent == null) {
            return super.onStartCommand(intent, flags, startId);
        }
        //获取目标service的intent
        Intent target = intent.getParcelableExtra(EXTRA_TARGET);
        if (target != null) {
            //获取插件路径
            String pluginLocation = intent.getStringExtra(EXTRA_PLUGIN_LOCATION);
            ComponentName component = target.getComponent();
            LoadedPlugin plugin = PluginManager.getInstance(this).getLoadedPlugin(component);
            if (plugin == null && pluginLocation != null) {
                try {
                    //加载apk插件文件
                    PluginManager.getInstance(this).loadPlugin(new File(pluginLocation));
                } catch (Exception e) {
                    Log.w(TAG, e);
                }
            }
        }

        return super.onStartCommand(intent, flags, startId);
    }
}

启动远程服务多了一步加载其他插件的Service的操作

5、Service插件化总结

  • 初始化时通过ActivityManagerProxy Hook住了IActivityManager。
  • 服务启动时通过ActivityManagerProxy拦截,判断是否为远程服务,如果为远程服务,启动RemoteService,如果为同进程服务则启动LocalService。
  • 如果为LocalService,则通过DexClassLoader加载目标Service,然后反射调用attach方法绑定Context,然后执行Service的onCreate、onStartCommand方法
  • 如果为RemoteService,则先加载插件的远程Service,后续跟LocalService一致。

参考资料:

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