CentOS7安装Nginx

CentOS7安装Nginx

技术杂谈小彩虹2021-07-09 13:23:12140A+A-

安装先决条件

sudo yum install yum-utils

安装nginx

sudo yum install -y nginx

提示没有可用的软件包,

原因是nginx位于第三方的yum源里面,而不在centos官方yum源里面
很多软件包在yum里面没有的,解决的方法,就是使用epel源,也就是安装epel-release软件包。EPEL (Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux)是基于Fedora的一个项目,为“红帽系”的操作系统提供额外的软件包,适用于RHEL、CentOS等系统。可以在下面的网址上找到对应的系统版本,架构的软件包

  • 解决办法,安装epel
sudo yum install epel-release
yum update

重试yum install -y nginx

Nginx默认目录

# whereis命令用于查找文件
# 该指令会在特定目录中查找符合条件的文件。这些文件应属于原始代码、二进制文件,或是帮助文件。
# 该指令只能用于查找二进制文件、源代码文件和man手册页,一般文件的定位需使用locate命令
# whereis [-bfmsu][-B <目录>...][-M <目录>...][-S <目录>...][文件...]

whereis nginx

nginx: /usr/sbin/nginx /usr/lib64/nginx /etc/nginx /usr/share/nginx /usr/share/man/man3/nginx.3pm.gz /usr/share/man/man8/nginx.8.gz

执行目录:/usr/sbin/nginx
模块所在目录:/usr/lib64/nginx/modules
配置所在目录:/etc/nginx/
默认站点目录:/usr/share/nginx/htm

  • 启动、停止、重载命令
# 启动
systemctl start nginx.service

# 停止
systemctl stop nginx.service

# 重载
systemctl reload nginx.service

#查看状态
systemctl status nginx.service

  • 查看端口情况
netstat -antp | grep : # 查看所有端口
netstat -antp | grep :80 # 查看所有80端口

提示-bash: netstat: 未找到命令
安装# yum -y install net-tools再次执行netstat -antp | grep :80

tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:80              0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      49436/nginx: master 
tcp        0      0 192.168.72.100:43272    202.232.140.10:80       TIME_WAIT   -                   
tcp        0      0 192.168.72.100:44148    150.65.7.130:80         TIME_WAIT   -                   
tcp        0      0 192.168.72.100:44760    103.48.119.119:80       TIME_WAIT   -                   
tcp        0      0 192.168.72.100:44402    45.120.52.95:80         TIME_WAIT   -                   
tcp        0      0 192.168.72.100:55758    134.160.38.1:80         TIME_WAIT   -                   
tcp        0      0 192.168.72.100:47554    14.17.102.85:80         TIME_WAIT   -                   
tcp        0      0 192.168.72.100:50954    103.233.192.20:80       TIME_WAIT   -                   
tcp        0      0 192.168.72.100:51502    109.224.14.75:80        TIME_WAIT   -                   
tcp6       0      0 :::80                   :::*                    LISTEN      49436/nginx: master 

  • 查看进程状态ps aux | grep nginx
root      49525  0.0  0.1 105504  2128 ?        Ss   12:21   0:00 nginx: master process /usr/sbin/nginx
nginx     49526  0.0  0.1 105972  2924 ?        S    12:21   0:00 nginx: worker process
nginx     49527  0.0  0.1 105972  2924 ?        S    12:21   0:00 nginx: worker process
nginx     49528  0.0  0.1 105972  2924 ?        S    12:21   0:00 nginx: worker process
nginx     49529  0.0  0.1 105972  2924 ?        S    12:21   0:00 nginx: worker process
nginx     49530  0.0  0.1 105972  2924 ?        S    12:21   0:00 nginx: worker process
nginx     49531  0.0  0.1 105972  2924 ?        S    12:21   0:00 nginx: worker process
nginx     49532  0.0  0.1 105972  2924 ?        S    12:21   0:00 nginx: worker process
nginx     49533  0.0  0.1 105972  2924 ?        S    12:21   0:00 nginx: worker process
root      49535  0.0  0.0 112824   976 pts/0    S+   12:22   0:00 grep --color=auto nginx
  • 查看日志,具体文件位置在nginx.conf配置
 tail -f /var/log/nginx/access.log
 
 tail -f /var/log/nginx/error.log

Nginx配置

  • 配置文件cat /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
# For more information on configuration, see:
#   * Official English Documentation: http://nginx.org/en/docs/
#   * Official Russian Documentation: http://nginx.org/ru/docs/

user nginx;
worker_processes auto;
error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
pid /run/nginx.pid;

# Load dynamic modules. See /usr/share/doc/nginx/README.dynamic.
include /usr/share/nginx/modules/*.conf;

events {
    worker_connections 1024;
}

http {
    log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                      '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                      '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

    access_log  /var/log/nginx/access.log  main;

    sendfile            on;
    tcp_nopush          on;
    tcp_nodelay         on;
    keepalive_timeout   65;
    types_hash_max_size 2048;

    include             /etc/nginx/mime.types;
    default_type        application/octet-stream;

    # Load modular configuration files from the /etc/nginx/conf.d directory.
    # See http://nginx.org/en/docs/ngx_core_module.html#include
    # for more information.
    include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;

    server {
        listen       80 default_server;
        listen       [::]:80 default_server;
        server_name  192.168.72.100;
        root         /usr/share/nginx/html;

        # Load configuration files for the default server block.
        include /etc/nginx/default.d/*.conf;

        location / {
        	proxy_pass http://192.168.72.100:9000;
        }

        error_page 404 /404.html;
        location = /404.html {
        }

        error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
        location = /50x.html {
        }
        
      
        
      #精准匹配测试
      #第1,2条虽然匹配,但第三条是精准匹配,出第三条结果
      #测试路径/equal/a/b/c
      location ~ /equal/* {
          echo '/equal/*';
      }
      location /equal/a/b {
          echo '/equal/a/b';
      }
      location = /equal/a/b/c {
          echo '/equal/a/b/c';
      }
 
      #普通匹配测试
      #第1,2条虽然匹配,第三条匹配更长,出第三条结果
      #测试路径/match/a/b/c
      location /match/a {
          return 200  "/match/a";
      }
      location /match/a/b {
          return 200  "/match/a/b";	
      }
      location /match/a/b/c {
           return 200  "/match/a/b/c";
      }
      location /match/a/b/c/d {
          return 200  "/match/a/b/c/d"; 
      }

      #正则匹配覆盖普通匹配,不会覆盖非正则匹配
      #访问/re/a.htm,会被后面的正则覆盖
      #访问/re/a/b开头的路径,不会被后面的正则覆盖
      location /re/a.htm {
           echo 'match /re/a.htm';
      }
      location ^~ /re/a/b {
          echo 'math ^~/re/a/b*';		
      }
      location ~ /re/(.*)\.(htm|js|css)$ {
          echo "cover /re/$1.$2";
      }

      #正则匹配成功一条后,便不再走其它正则
      #测试路径/rex/a/b/c.htm
      location ~ /rex/.*\.(htm|js|css)$ {
          echo "match first";
      }
      location ~ /rex/a/(.*)\.(htm|js|css)$ {
          echo "match second";
      }
      location ~ /rex/a/b/(.*)\.(htm|js|css)$ {
          echo "match third";
      }
      
      
      #规则一:
      #访问路径:http://192.168.72.100/user/query?id=1
      location /user {
           #path1:/user path2:/query 
           #ip:port 后面无 /
      	   proxy_pass http://192.168.0.105:8080;
      }

      规则二:
      #访问路径 :http://192.168.72.100/A/user/query?id=1
      location /A/user {
            #path1:/A/user path2:/query 
            #ip:port 后面有 /xxx
            proxy_pass http://192.168.0.105:8080/user;
      }



    }

# Settings for a TLS enabled server.
#
#    server {
#        listen       443 ssl http2 default_server;
#        listen       [::]:443 ssl http2 default_server;
#        server_name  _;
#        root         /usr/share/nginx/html;
#
#        ssl_certificate "/etc/pki/nginx/server.crt";
#        ssl_certificate_key "/etc/pki/nginx/private/server.key";
#        ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:1m;
#        ssl_session_timeout  10m;
#        ssl_ciphers HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5;
#        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
#
#        # Load configuration files for the default server block.
#        include /etc/nginx/default.d/*.conf;
#
#        location / {
#        }
#
#        error_page 404 /404.html;
#        location = /404.html {
#        }
#
#        error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
#        location = /50x.html {
#        }
#    }

}

参考文档:
官方文档
Centos 7下安装nginx,使用yum install nginx,提示没有可用的软件包

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